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Vladimir Zerjavic
YUGOSLAVIA-MANIPULATIONS -WITH THE NUMBER OF SECOND WORLD WAR VICTIMS

Publisher: Croatian Information Centre
Editorial Board: Chairman - Ante Beljo
Bozica Ercegovac Jambrovic, Edo Bosnar, Jadranka Busic, Ivan Galic, Biljana Knebl
Printed by: Hrvatska Tiskara, Zagreb

ISBN 0-919817-32-7


THE AUTHOR'S SURVEY OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN WAR LOSSES IN YUGOSLAVIA

I began with statistical calculations of population losses during the Second World War in early 1986*. By the end of my calculations I came across a publication by Dr. Bogoljub Kocovic, who used an almost identical method in his statistical calculations**.

It should be stressed that only Mr. Kocovic and I classified our calculations according to republics and provinces, and according to nationality, while all other authors only stated total data for all of Yugoslavia. Therefore, it is interesting to view our comparative surveys:

Table 2

Teritory of pre-war Yugoslavia

Kocovic

Zerjavic

Total demographic losses

1,985.000

2,022.000

Decrease in Birth rate

333.000

326.000

Emigrations

638.000

669.000

War death toll

1,014.000

1,027.000

Here we should explain differences in the number of Serbian and Croatian casualties of war. When calculating the population increase for Belgrade (together with Zemun and Pancevo), Dr. Kocovic considered only the growth rate of the calculated population on March 31, 1931, (289,000), and did not take into account the population which immigrated from rural areas of Serbia, and other parts of the country. According to the Statistics Yearbook of 1938/39, the number of inhabitants of Belgrade increased to 409,000, as of December 31,1938. Thus the Serbian losses for Serbia Proper are larger in my survey (142,000), than in Dr. Kocovic's (Serbian and Montenegrin losses: 114,000).

 

Table 3
COMPARISON OF THE ACTUAL POPULATION LOSSES ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY (in thousands)

Kocovic Zerjavic
Nationality

total

in the
country

abroad

total

Serbians

487

497

33

530

Croatians

207

178

14

192

Slovenians

32

36

6

42

Montenegrins

50

20

-

20

Muslims

86

100

3

103

Macedonians

7

6

-

6

Other Slavs

12

7

-

7

Albanians

6

18

-

18

Jews

60

33

24

57

Gypsies

27

18

-

18

Germans

26

28

-

28

Others

14

6

-

6

Total

1014

947

80

1027

When calculating Croatia's losses, Dr. Kocovic did not consider that the Biograd and Preko districts (56,000 inhabitants) were incorporated in the pre-war Yugoslav territory, and by this he increased losses of Croatians and decreased the losses in the annexed territory. Dr. Kocovic's calculations of Croatian losses would, with this correction, be 151,000, while my calculations state 192,000.

When calculating Montenegrin losses, Dr. Kocovic implied a considerably larger annual growth rate for the period of 1941- 1948, than Montenegro had in the period between 1921 and 1931, although the registered annual growth rate in all of Yugoslavia was in a constant decline after 1931. For example, the average growth rate in Yugoslavia between 1921 and 1931 was 1.5% per year, while in the year of 1939 the registered growth rate was only 1.1%. My calculations of losses according to republics and provinces are the following:

Table 4
WAR LOSSES ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY
(in thousands)

Nationality B-H Montenegro Croatia Macedonia Slovenia Serbia Abroad Total
Serbians 164 6 131 6 - 190 33 530
Croatians 64 1 106 - - 7 14 192
Slovenians - 1 2 - 32 1 6 42
Macedonians - - - 6 - - - 6
Montenegrin - 20 - - - - - 20
Muslims 75 4 2 4 - 15 3 103
Albanians - 4 - - - 14 - 18
Jews 9 - 10 - - 14 24 57
Germans 1 - 2 - 1 24 - 28
Gypsies 1 - 15 - - 2 - 18
Others 2 1 3 1 - 6 - 13
Total 316 37 271 17 33 273 80 1.027

The second part of my book gives a survey of actual losses published in other sources, i.e. monographs issued by people's committees in individual municipalities and districts, the Karlovac Historical Archives, the Federal Association of the Liberation War Fighters, and by some other authors. Registered, collected and classified data on the actual losses have been important for checking the statistically calculated results. Registered data for Croatia (available for all municipalities and districts), numbered 266,600 losses, while statistically calculated data showed 271,000 losses. For other republics and provinces 80-90% of the data was compiled, which denoted that the actual data could approximately match the statistically calculated data.

Table 5
ACTUAL WAR LOSSES IN YUGOSLAVIA ACCORDING TO CATEGORIES(in thousands)

Republics-Provinces Casualties Total Ressis. fighters Victims total Victims in places Victims in camps Collab. and quislings
B-H 316 72 174 89 85 70
Montenegro 37 15 15 14 1 7
Croatia 271 66 153 105 48 52
Macedonia 17 14 2 2 - 1
Slovenia 33 12 11 8 3 10
Serbia (total) 273 58 146 67 79 69
Serbia Proper 167 42 92 39 53 33
Vojvodina 83 10 46 20 26 27
Kosovo 23 6 8 8 - 9
Total 947 237 501 285 216 209

* Gubici stanovnistva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu, (Population Losses of Yugoslavia, Zagreb, 1989).

** Zrtve drugog svjetskog rata u Jugoslaviji (Victims of the Second World War in Yugoslavia), Nase Delo, London, 1985.


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